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Guide to 3D character modeling: Full сreation process & tips

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3D character modeling is a multi-stage process in which a 3D artist uses various software and tools to create a game character or other media. The creation of modern games, movies, and even commercials is almost inseparable from CG-technology, one of the directions of which is the modeling of characters. The main stages of pipeline consist of:

  • Concepting
  • Blocking 
  • Sculpting
  • Retopology 
  • UV unwrapping
  • Baking
  • Texturing 
  • Rigging & Skinning 
  • Animation 
  • Rendering

Today we will show you with detail, and our personal experience what a 3D model of a character is, how does it work, how it’s created, and a few designer secrets and lifehacks.

How does 3D modeling work?

In order to choose the right pipeline, you will first need to understand what exactly you want to achieve and what are your expectations of a result (needed to choose the right realization technique).

There are many techniques for creating 3D characters. For example, we can highlight the 2 biggest techniques for creating. For the start, let’s choose a pre-render of characters, and then a true 3D model. In addition, these areas of creation can be more detailed and less detailed. Remember which game engine is used with which rendering pipeline- everything depends on the result we need.

The character is usually a human, animal, robot, or mythical creature. In addition, the character can be either the main character (the player controls it during the game) or a secondary character (the creatures with which the player interacts), or even exist on the periphery alone.

So, let’s focus on our version, we need to create a 3D character model for 3rd person camera view for PBR. PBR stands for Physically Based Rendering. The main idea is to use multiple texture maps to control the different properties of the material, determining how the material reacts to light. This method of material creation is widely used in rendering.

What is Polygonal modeling?

It is divided into a highly polygonal (detailed model with a large number of polygons) and a low-polygonal (schematic model with a small number of polygons), making it optimal for use in games.

Polygonal modeling is a low-level simulation that visualizes an object using a polygonal grid. It may often seem easy to work with them. It has a clearly defined external and internal area, and no additional parameters and calculations need to be made.

However, this method requires a lot of patience and perseverance because to create even the simplest three-dimensional model, it is necessary to make thousands of clicks with a mouse. The smallest error can spoil all your hard work, and it is difficult to remake the finished object. Because of this, it is important to be as careful and accurate as possible.

Polygonal grids consist of such sub-objects:

  • vertex (the point of joining the edges. There can be any number of them);
  • edges (lines protruding from face borders);
  • polygons (grid cells, plane sections, which are most often triangular or quadrangular in shape).

Detailed step by step 3D character design process 

To understand the overall concept of the character, gather as many references as possible to know who and how you are going to create. In addition, it is much more fun to work on the playable character when you know its backstory and what makes it unique. Lets have a closer look to each step of this process.

3D character concept

Before you start creating a character, you need to suppose about their story and how to picture it through this person. To do this, collect a variety of references to understand who and how you’re going to create. Plus, it’s much better to work on a playable character when you know their history and background and what makes them unique. 

When you collect the ideas and the necessary references, here come into play concept artists. Their main goal is to give the primary look to unborn game characters and set the tone for their further development.

3D character Blocking

Tip: You can begin to create your 3D model by combining the primitive forms into the desired character form. This will give you an idea of what your character will look like.

3D character sculpting

When you start sculpting a character, you have a smooth model that doesn’t have the features yet, and the 3D artist needs to create them.

Creating a 3D Character Retopology

The topology of the game character is a surface structure that defines the model’s visual characteristics.

Most often, the topology of the 3D model is created using polygon modeling. Because polygons can have multiple angles, it is essential to choose a shape that allows you to easily edit and animate individual pieces of the shape.

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UV unwrapping

Why UV unwrapping is important?

UV unwrapping is the process of ‘unfolding’ a mesh so that you can create a 2D texture which fits the 3D object. It is generally necessary if you wish to texture your object very accurately

What is UV Mapping & Unwrapping?

A UV map is the flat representation of the surface of a 3D model used to easily wrap textures. The process of creating a UV map is called UV unwrapping.

Baking

Baking is the process of saving information from a 3D mesh, to a texture file (bitmap).

Most of the time, this process involves two meshes, a high poly mesh and a low poly mesh:

  • A high poly mesh has many polygons (often millions) which means it can display high-resolution 3D detail.
  • The low poly mesh has far fewer polygons (usually only a few thousand), so it is cheaper to store and render.

Baking textures allows you to get the best of both worlds: the high level of detail from the high poly mesh and the low performance costs of the low poly mesh. In the baking process, the information of the high poly mesh is transferred onto the low poly mesh and saved into a texture.

General mesh maps is: Normal map, world space normal, ID, Ambient Occlusion, Curvature, Position, Thickness, Emissive

Texturing 3D models

It would seem that it is so difficult and interesting to create textures. But artists will not agree with you. Texturing is one of the most important steps in the construction of a 3D model. At this stage, the surfaces of the object model are given the necessary properties to make it more realistic.

Most textures are used to demonstrate the physical capabilities of the created model, make the object realistic and revitalize the game. One of the main functions is to create small details (folds on clothes, wrinkles, shadows, facial features, etc.).

Texturing is a form of computer graphics that allows the surface of 3D models to be saturated and realistic.

Tip: Use MIP texture is a texture application method (3D mapping) that uses multiple copies of a single texture image but with different levels of detail.

Rigging and skinning 3D character models

The rigging process involves creating a character skeleton. This is necessary in order to animate a separate skeleton or bone in the future and thus make the 3D model of a person move.

After rigging, skinning comes. In other words, at this stage, the skeleton becomes part of the character, which means that he can now move.

Character Animation in 3D

Model animation is an important final step in character creation. Artists animate the body movements of the characters, as well as create facial expressions to breathe life into them. When working on facial expressions, gestures, and movements, special tools are often used to manipulate parts of the body.

Lighting 3D character

Effective lighting can heighten a scene by depicting the position, time of day, emotions, mood, and behavior of the shot. The idea is to make the 3D model look more realistic and satisfying. A lighting artist can use lighting to manipulate the bystander on where to concentrate when exploring the game terrain or the 3D character model.

Tip: Use Ambient occlusion to make deep parts of our render more realistic and emphasize light parts. But do not exaggerate.

3D character rendering

It’s a process where an artist creates a scene for a 3D model using computer graphics and converts it into a 2D image. Artists adjust the illumination of the image, the direction of the camera, and the texture of the frame. 

LifeHack. Some 3D artists use separate hardware for rendering – this allows them to continue work with another modeling on the main computer, while the rendering can take hours on the secondary one.

How long does it take to create a 3D character?

The time to produce a 3D character depends on numerous factors, like the position of complexity, experience of the modeler, etc. Keeping in mind these factors, it can take roughly 100 to 200 hours.

Which is the best software for 3D character modeling?

For designing a 3D character, developers use a wide range of software for 3D modeling and rendering. The perfect match for some of them is: 

  • 3ds Max
  • Autodesk Maya
  • Houdini
  • Daz Studio
  • ZBrush
  • Blender

How Much Does It Cost to Create a 3D Game Character?

You’ve decided to create your own signature character, but you’re not sure where to begin or how much it will cost. We figure out what is what.

The trademark character is usually an enthusiastic hero who has his own individual character, appearance, and habits. Through his interaction with the consumer, he expresses the image of the protagonist, company, brand, or brand. If we’re talking about 3D characters, they’re more realistic and dynamic. They’re more lively than 2D characters. They are used in games and often in the vast expanse of Internet advertising. 

The characters can be:

  • рeople;
  • аnimals and plants;
  • invented and non-existent creatures (for example, monsters or aliens);
  • machinery (robots);
  • mythic creatures;
  • other inanimate objects.

The price of the game character depends on the complexity of the model, quality of the character, presence of additional artifacts, skins, and variety of movements. So, an average character model creates in about 100 hours, but it all depends on additional factors and characteristics.

How long does it take to 3d model a character?

If you are interested in 3D modeling, here is a little easier. In general, the development of 3D models is the process of creating accurate virtual copies of objects or characters. 

Most 3D models of the game characters are created for further development. So that the customer can see what he’s going to look like, put on a pair of crocs or something.

The process of modeling takes less time and has only five steps

  1. Model simulation or geometry

It is about creating a three-dimensional geometric model, without taking into account the object’s physical properties. 

  1. Texturizing an object

The level of realism of the future model depends directly on the choice of materials when creating the textures. Professional programs for working with 3D graphics are almost unlimited in their ability to create a realistic picture.

  1. Light and observation point

The choice of light tone, level of brightness, sharpness, and depth of shadows. This directly depends on the realistic perception of the image. In addition, you must select a monitoring point for the object. This can be a bird’s-eye view or a scaling of space to achieve a presence effect. 

  1. 3D visualization or rendering.

The final stage of 3D modeling. It consists of detailing the display settings of the 3D model. That is the addition of graphic special effects such as glare, fog, glow, and others. 

  1. Post-production

This is the processing of images and videos with the help of media editors. Post-production is about giving media files original visual effects. The main goals of this stage are to arouse the consciousness of the potential consumer: to impress, to arouse interest, and to be remembered for a long time.

Benefits of game art outsourcing

It is quite common for game companies to lack experienced, competent artists and designers who can do art. This is why it is important to delegate this part of the robot. One of the biggest advantages is that you get a complete game art & design solution, and a professional team in one place. Here is an example of the tasks that you can cover if you outsource production:

  • Creating creative, artistic content

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A team of professionals will be able to highlight your product among other games, regardless of which genre you choose. They can even come up with a completely new genre for your project, so that it will definitely impress your audience.

  • Accelerate art creation

Companies always realize that you may not have enough time and other resources to complete the project on time. Therefore, the company is ready to accelerate the process thanks to its experience.

  • Increase your team creativity

Most companies work on a large number of projects of different genres, so they are willing to share their ideas and skills to make your product the best on the market.

  • Get a niche expertise

If you choose an expert company, they will very carefully select the developers with whom they work. Cooperating with large and well-known companies immediately increases your authority and expertise.

3D character design services with Stepico 

In our time, among a large number of professionals, it is difficult to hire really good character designers who will be able to create a model quickly and efficiently. We need to look for a 3D design studio, which is no easy task. 

In this question, you will help the profession of Stepico. Our studio is actively developing different types of models for different games and not only. More can be seen in our game art portfolio. Also, you can visit our Behance and ArtStation and get a portion of inspiration. Our designers and developers are among the best professionals in the world. 

Let’s discuss your project and bring your most exciting ideas to life! Be sure that you will achieve your creative vision in the shortest period with us.

Choose Stepico and step into the future!
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I have broad experience in game dev and animation production. In my work, I use a lot of techniques - 2d concept art, 3d sketching and VR sketching, and Unreal Engine 5 for prototyping.
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